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    Domitian's Tainted Triumph

    Domitian (AD 81-96). AV aureus (19mm, 7.05 gm, 6h). NGC XF ★ 5/5 - 5/5. Rome, AD 88-89. DOMITIANVS-AVGVSTVS, laureate head of Domitian right / GERMANICVS above, Domitian standing left in cart of walking triumphal quadriga, holding laurel branch in right hand and scepter in left; Victory on side of chariot; COS XIIII in exergue. RIC II, Part 1, 561. Calicó 837. BMCRE 144. Rare. Attractive light reddish tone in fields.

    From the Golden Gate Collection.

    Domitian has gone down in history as a depraved tyrant, but the truth is rather more complicated. Of all his predecessors, his reign most closely resembles that of Tiberius - well begun, ably maintained, but ending in suspicion, dread, and slaughter. He was born in AD 51 to the respected senator and general Vespasian, who successfully seized and held the throne to conclude the civil wars of AD 68-69. As a young man, Domitian was largely overshadowed by his older brother Titus, a situation that probably shaped his dour, resentful character. When Titus died in September of AD 81 after only two years of rule, Domitian wasted no time in seizing power as the third emperor of the Flavian dynasty. Though not much of a soldier, he led a number of campaigns against the Germans that pushed the frontiers forward. This attractive aureus, one of the few that does not represent his patron goddess Minerva on the reverse, was struck for a "double triumph" celebrated in AD 89, celebrating his German campaign of AD 88-89 and a near contemporaneous "victory" over the Dacians. In truth both victories were rather questionable: The German campaign began as a rebellion against Domitian's rule by the legions of the upper Rhine, put down with great difficulty, while the victory over the Dacians only came after a series of humiliating defeats.


    多米提安的凱旋金幣

    多米提安(AD 81-96)。標準重奧里斯金幣。(19mm, 7.05 gm, 6h)。NGC XFS 5/5 - 5/5。
    羅馬鑄造,公元88-89年。多米提安-月桂冠面右頭像。背面上部幣文Germanicus, 多米提安面左駕四馬戰車,右手舉月桂枝左手握權杖,勝利女神在側。刻記COS XIIII。RIC II, Part 1, 561. Calicó 837. BMCRE 144. 罕有,底面透出迷人的淡紅色包漿。

    出自Golden Gate收藏。

    多米提安常以暴君形象傳於歷史,然而真相要複雜得多。在他的前任之中,提比略的統治與他的最為相似:精明地維持了良好的開端,但卻在疑慮、恐懼與殺戮中終結。公元51年,他生為受人尊重的元老及軍官葦斯巴薌的兒子,後者成功結束了68-69年的內戰。其兄提圖斯令年輕的多米提安相形見拙,可能塑造了他陰沉的性格。公元81年9月,提圖斯在短短兩年的統治後去世,多米提安抓住時機得權,成為了弗拉維沃王朝的第三任皇帝。雖然他並非一個出色的士兵,卻領導了一系列對抗日耳曼人的戰役,並將邊境向前推進了。這枚引人註目的奧裏斯金幣,是少數沒有在背面刻畫密涅瓦女神的例子,而是打上了公元89年的"雙重勝利",慶祝88-89年的對日耳曼人的戰役以及幾乎同時的對達契亞人的"勝利"。然而實際上這兩場勝利都是可商榷的:日耳曼戰役實際上始於駐紮萊因河上遊的羅馬軍團對多米提安的反叛,費盡全力才得以鎮壓;至於對達契亞人的勝利只是在一系列羞恥的失敗後才出現的。


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